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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020328

Paper-Based Electrochemical Detection of Chlorate

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Center for Bio/Molecular Science & Engineering (Code 6900), 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375, USA
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Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Sensors)
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Abstract

We describe the use of a paper-based probe impregnated with a vanadium-containing polyoxometalate anion, [PMo11VO40]5−, on screen-printed carbon electrodes for the electrochemical determination of chlorate. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronocoulometry were used to characterize the ClO3 response in a pH = 2.5 solution of 100 mM sodium acetate. A linear CV current response was observed between 0.156 and 1.25 mg/mL with a detection limit of 0.083 mg/mL (S/N > 3). This performance was reproducible using [PMo11VO40]5−-impregnated filter paper stored under ambient conditions for as long as 8 months prior to use. At high concentration of chlorate, an additional catalytic cathodic peak was seen in the reverse scan of the CVs, which was digitally simulated using a simple model. For chronocoulometry, the charge measured after 5 min gave a linear response from 0.625 to 2.5 mg/mL with a detection limit of 0.31 mg/mL (S/N > 3). In addition, the slope of charge vs. time also gave a linear response. In this case the linear range was from 0.312 to 2.5 mg/mL with a detection limit of 0.15 mg/mL (S/N > 3). Simple assays were conducted using three types of soil, and recovery measurements reported. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorate; electrochemical detection; paper-based probe; electrocatalysis; polyoxometalates chlorate; electrochemical detection; paper-based probe; electrocatalysis; polyoxometalates
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Shriver-Lake, L.C.; Zabetakis, D.; Dressick, W.J.; Stenger, D.A.; Trammell, S.A. Paper-Based Electrochemical Detection of Chlorate. Sensors 2018, 18, 328.

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