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Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2136; doi:10.3390/s17092136

Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias; Monterrey 64849, Mexico
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB); Dhaka 1209, Bangladesh
Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM); Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Radio Sensing and Sensor Networks)
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New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN). First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive radio ad hoc network; medium access control; cognitive radio; spectrum mobility; spectrum sensing; spectrum sharing cognitive radio ad hoc network; medium access control; cognitive radio; spectrum mobility; spectrum sensing; spectrum sharing

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zareei, M.; Islam, A.K.M.M.; Baharun, S.; Vargas-Rosales, C.; Azpilicueta, L.; Mansoor, N. Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey. Sensors 2017, 17, 2136.

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