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Sensors 2017, 17(9), 1942; doi:10.3390/s17091942

A Biosensor-CMOS Platform and Integrated Readout Circuit in 0.18-μm CMOS Technology for Cancer Biomarker Detection

1
Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Science and Engineering Division (CEMSE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Chapel Hill/North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
3
The Integrated Circuits Lab, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11535, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract

This paper presents a biosensor-CMOS platform for measuring the capacitive coupling of biorecognition elements. The biosensor is designed, fabricated, and tested for the detection and quantification of a protein that reveals the presence of early-stage cancer. For the first time, the spermidine/spermine N1 acetyltransferase (SSAT) enzyme has been screened and quantified on the surface of a capacitive sensor. The sensor surface is treated to immobilize antibodies, and the baseline capacitance of the biosensor is reduced by connecting an array of capacitors in series for fixed exposure area to the analyte. A large sensing area with small baseline capacitance is implemented to achieve a high sensitivity to SSAT enzyme concentrations. The sensed capacitance value is digitized by using a 12-bit highly digital successive-approximation capacitance-to-digital converter that is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The readout circuit operates in the near-subthreshold regime and provides power and area efficient operation. The capacitance range is 16.137 pF with a 4.5 fF absolute resolution, which adequately covers the concentrations of 10 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, and 1.25 mg/L of the SSAT enzyme. The concentrations were selected as a pilot study, and the platform was shown to demonstrate high sensitivity for SSAT enzymes on the surface of the capacitive sensor. The tested prototype demonstrated 42.5 μS of measurement time and a total power consumption of 2.1 μW. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensor; interdigitated electrodes; SSAT enzyme diagnostic platform; capacitive sensor interface; early cancer detection; CMOS biosensor; interdigitated electrodes; SSAT enzyme diagnostic platform; capacitive sensor interface; early cancer detection; CMOS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alhoshany, A.; Sivashankar, S.; Mashraei, Y.; Omran, H.; Salama, K.N. A Biosensor-CMOS Platform and Integrated Readout Circuit in 0.18-μm CMOS Technology for Cancer Biomarker Detection. Sensors 2017, 17, 1942.

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