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Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1781; doi:10.3390/s17081781

Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks for Precision Agriculture: A Review

1
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
2
Department of Computer Communication Engineering, Al-Rafidain University College, Filastin 10064, Baghdad, Iraq
3
Department of Medical Instrumentation Techniques Engineering, Electrical Engineering Technical College, Middle Technical University (MTU), Al Doura 10022, Baghdad, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 30 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Agriculture and Remote Sensing Data Fusion)
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Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be used in agriculture to provide farmers with a large amount of information. Precision agriculture (PA) is a management strategy that employs information technology to improve quality and production. Utilizing wireless sensor technologies and management tools can lead to a highly effective, green agriculture. Based on PA management, the same routine to a crop regardless of site environments can be avoided. From several perspectives, field management can improve PA, including the provision of adequate nutrients for crops and the wastage of pesticides for the effective control of weeds, pests, and diseases. This review outlines the recent applications of WSNs in agriculture research as well as classifies and compares various wireless communication protocols, the taxonomy of energy-efficient and energy harvesting techniques for WSNs that can be used in agricultural monitoring systems, and comparison between early research works on agriculture-based WSNs. The challenges and limitations of WSNs in the agricultural domain are explored, and several power reduction and agricultural management techniques for long-term monitoring are highlighted. These approaches may also increase the number of opportunities for processing Internet of Things (IoT) data. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy-efficient; energy harvesting; precision agriculture; wireless communication technology; WSN energy-efficient; energy harvesting; precision agriculture; wireless communication technology; WSN
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jawad, H.M.; Nordin, R.; Gharghan, S.K.; Jawad, A.M.; Ismail, M. Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks for Precision Agriculture: A Review. Sensors 2017, 17, 1781.

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