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Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1677; doi:10.3390/s17071677

Lifetime Maximization via Hole Alleviation in IoT Enabling Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

1
University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
2
Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
4
Biomedical Technology, Department College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Networks for Collaborative and Secure Internet of Things)
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Abstract

In Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), there are two major factors which degrade the performance of the network. One is the void hole which occurs in a particular region due to unavailability of forwarder nodes. The other is the presence of energy hole which occurs due to imbalanced data traffic load on intermediate nodes. Therefore, an optimum transmission strategy is required to maximize the network lifespan via hole alleviation. In this regard, we propose a heterogeneous network solution that is capable to balance energy dissipation among network nodes. In addition, the divide and conquer approach is exploited to evenly distribute number of transmissions over various network areas. An efficient forwarder node selection is performed to alleviate coverage and energy holes. Linear optimization is performed to validate the effectiveness of our proposed work in term of energy minimization. Furthermore, simulations are conducted to show that our claims are well grounded. Results show the superiority of our work as compared to the baseline scheme in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of Things Wireless Sensor Networks (IoTWSNs); traffic load; energy consumption; energy hole; network lifetime; End2End Delay (E2ED); routing; linear programming Internet of Things Wireless Sensor Networks (IoTWSNs); traffic load; energy consumption; energy hole; network lifetime; End2End Delay (E2ED); routing; linear programming
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wadud, Z.; Javaid, N.; Khan, M.A.; Alrajeh, N.; Alabed, M.S.; Guizani, N. Lifetime Maximization via Hole Alleviation in IoT Enabling Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 1677.

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