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Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1661; doi:10.3390/s17071661

Amperometric Microsensors Monitoring Glutamate-Evoked In Situ Responses of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide from Live Human Neuroblastoma Cells

1,†
,
2,†
,
2,3
,
2,3
,
1,* and 2,3,4,*
1
Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
2
Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon 16419, Korea
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 16419, Korea
4
Samsung Advanced Institute of Health Science and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 16419, Korea
Authors are equally contributed to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 16 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Cell-Based Biosensors and Application)
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Abstract

In the brain, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are important signaling gases which have multifaceted roles, such as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and vasodilators. Even though it is difficult to measure NO and CO in a living system due to their high diffusibility and extremely low release levels, electrochemical sensors are promising tools to measure in vivo and in vitro NO and CO gases. In this paper, using amperometric dual and septuple NO/CO microsensors, real-time NO and CO changes evoked by glutamate were monitored simultaneously for human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. In cultures, the cells were differentiated and matured into functional neurons by retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. When glutamate was administrated to the cells, both NO and CO increases and subsequent decreases returning to the basal levels were observed with a dual NO/CO microsensor. In order to facilitate sensor’s measurement, a flower-type septuple NO/CO microsensor was newly developed and confirmed in terms of the sensitivity and selectivity. The septuple microsensor was employed for the measurements of NO and CO changes as a function of distances from the position of glutamate injection. Our sensor measurements revealed that only functionally differentiated cells responded to glutamate and released NO and CO. View Full-Text
Keywords: amperometric sensor; nitric oxide; carbon monoxide; neuroblastoma cells; glutamate stimulation amperometric sensor; nitric oxide; carbon monoxide; neuroblastoma cells; glutamate stimulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ha, Y.; Heo, C.; Woo, J.; Ryu, H.; Lee, Y.; Suh, M. Amperometric Microsensors Monitoring Glutamate-Evoked In Situ Responses of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide from Live Human Neuroblastoma Cells. Sensors 2017, 17, 1661.

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