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Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071614

Sea Ice Detection Based on Differential Delay-Doppler Maps from UK TechDemoSat-1

1
School of Geodesy and Geomatics and Collaborative Innovation Center for Geospatial Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2
Key Laboratory of Precise Engineering and Industry Surveying, National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation, Wuhan 430079, China
3
German Research Centre for Geosciences, GFZ Potsdam 14473, Germany
4
Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin 10623, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals can be exploited to remotely sense atmosphere and land and ocean surface to retrieve a range of geophysical parameters. This paper proposes two new methods, termed as power-summation of differential Delay-Doppler Maps (PS-D) and pixel-number of differential Delay-Doppler Maps (PN-D), to distinguish between sea ice and sea water using differential Delay-Doppler Maps (dDDMs). PS-D and PN-D make use of power-summation and pixel-number of dDDMs, respectively, to measure the degree of difference between two DDMs so as to determine the transition state (water-water, water-ice, ice-ice and ice-water) and hence ice and water are detected. Moreover, an adaptive incoherent averaging of DDMs is employed to improve the computational efficiency. A large number of DDMs recorded by UK TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) over the Arctic region are used to test the proposed sea ice detection methods. Through evaluating against ground-truth measurements from the Ocean Sea Ice SAF, the proposed PS-D and PN-D methods achieve a probability of detection of 99.72% and 99.69% respectively, while the probability of false detection is 0.28% and 0.31% respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea ice; GNSS-R; Delay-Doppler Map (DDM); differential DDM (dDDM); UK TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) sea ice; GNSS-R; Delay-Doppler Map (DDM); differential DDM (dDDM); UK TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhu, Y.; Yu, K.; Zou, J.; Wickert, J. Sea Ice Detection Based on Differential Delay-Doppler Maps from UK TechDemoSat-1. Sensors 2017, 17, 1614.

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