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Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1477; doi:10.3390/s17071477

A Comprehensive Study on the Internet of Underwater Things: Applications, Challenges, and Channel Models

1
Department of Communications, Navigation and Control Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
2
Department of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Kao, C.C.; Lin, Y.S.; Wu, G.D.; Huang, C.J. A study of applications, challenges, and channel models on the internet of underwater things. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Applied System Innovation (IEEE ICASI), Sapporo, Japan, 13–17 May 2017.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2017)
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Abstract

The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) is a novel class of Internet of Things (IoT), and is defined as the network of smart interconnected underwater objects. IoUT is expected to enable various practical applications, such as environmental monitoring, underwater exploration, and disaster prevention. With these applications, IoUT is regarded as one of the potential technologies toward developing smart cities. To support the concept of IoUT, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have emerged as a promising network system. UWSNs are different from the traditional Territorial Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs), and have several unique properties, such as long propagation delay, narrow bandwidth, and low reliability. These unique properties would be great challenges for IoUT. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive study of IoUT, and the main contributions of this paper are threefold: (1) we introduce and classify the practical underwater applications that can highlight the importance of IoUT; (2) we point out the differences between UWSNs and traditional TWSNs, and these differences are the main challenges for IoUT; and (3) we investigate and evaluate the channel models, which are the technical core for designing reliable communication protocols on IoUT. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT); smart city; Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN); wireless sensor networks (WSN) Internet of Things (IoT); Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT); smart city; Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN); wireless sensor networks (WSN)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kao, C.-C.; Lin, Y.-S.; Wu, G.-D.; Huang, C.-J. A Comprehensive Study on the Internet of Underwater Things: Applications, Challenges, and Channel Models. Sensors 2017, 17, 1477.

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