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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1278; doi:10.3390/s17061278

Air Flow Detection in Crude Oil by Infrared Light

1
Graduate Program in Electrical and Computer Engineering (CPGEI), Federal University of Technology-PR, Curitiba 80230-901, Brazil
2
Department of Electronics, Federal University of Technology-PR, Curitiba 80230-901, Brazil
3
Graduate Program in Mechanical and Materials Engineering (PPGEM), Federal University of Technology-PR, Curitiba 80230-901, Brazil
4
Multiphase Flow Research Center (NUEM), Federal University of Technology-PR, Curitiba 80230-901, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: A. G. Unil Perera
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infrared Detectors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3262 KB, uploaded 3 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, we used infrared light in the range of 8–12 μm to develop and test an optical imaging system to detect air bubbles flowing in oil. The system basically comprises a broadband light source and a 31 × 32 thermopile array to generate images. To analyze the effects related to light absorption, reflection, and refraction on air-oil boundaries, a numerical model was developed and the predominance of the refraction instead of the absorption in bubbles with diameters below a certain critical value was observed. The IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum has both optical and thermic behavior. To understand the limits of each effect on the oil flow imaging, a study of the influence of temperature variation on the petroleum optical detection was performed. The developed optical imaging system allowed the detection of air flow in static oil and in oil-air two-phase flow. With the presented system, it was possible to achieve images through up to 12 mm of oil volumes, but this may be enhanced by the use of optimized IR sources and detectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: infrared radiation; optical detection; two-phase flow; crude oil-air flow; absorption infrared radiation; optical detection; two-phase flow; crude oil-air flow; absorption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dutra, G.; Martelli, C.; Da Silva, M.J.; Patyk, R.L.; Morales, R.E.M. Air Flow Detection in Crude Oil by Infrared Light. Sensors 2017, 17, 1278.

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