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Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1179; doi:10.3390/s17051179

A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

1
Group of Analysis, Security and Systems (GASS), Department of Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence (DISIA), Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Office 431, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Calle Profesor José García Santesmases, 9, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Convergence Security, Sungshin Women’s University, 249-1 Dongseon-dong 3-ga, Seoul 136-742, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Weizhe Zhang and Sabah Mohammed
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
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Abstract

In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads. View Full-Text
Keywords: ant colony optimization; ACO; AntOR; bioinspired; mobile ad hoc networks; MANET; PAntOR; routing protocol; swarm intelligence ant colony optimization; ACO; AntOR; bioinspired; mobile ad hoc networks; MANET; PAntOR; routing protocol; swarm intelligence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rupérez Cañas, D.; Sandoval Orozco, A.L.; García Villalba, L.J.; Kim, T.-H. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 1179.

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