Next Article in Journal
MERITXELL: The Multifrequency Experimental Radiometer with Interference Tracking for Experiments over Land and Littoral—Instrument Description, Calibration and Performance
Next Article in Special Issue
An Infrared Actin Probe for Deep-Cell Electroporation-Based Single-Molecule Speckle (eSiMS) Microscopy
Previous Article in Journal
A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Molecular Diode Studies Based on a Highly Sensitive Molecular Measurement Technique
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1091; doi:10.3390/s17051091

Substrate Dependent Ad-Atom Migration on Graphene and the Impact on Electron-Beam Sculpting Functional Nanopores

Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
Global Viral, 425 California St., San Francisco, CA 90104, USA
Quantum Biosystems, 1455 Adams Dr., Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Nano-Materials Laboratory, National Nanofab Center, Daejeon 305-806, Korea
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Masateru Taniguchi
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Molecule Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3053 KB, uploaded 10 May 2017]   |  


The use of atomically thin graphene for molecular sensing has attracted tremendous attention over the years and, in some instances, could displace the use of classical thin films. For nanopore sensing, graphene must be suspended over an aperture so that a single pore can be formed in the free-standing region. Nanopores are typically drilled using an electron beam (e-beam) which is tightly focused until a desired pore size is obtained. E-beam sculpting of graphene however is not just dependent on the ability to displace atoms but also the ability to hinder the migration of ad-atoms on the surface of graphene. Using relatively lower e-beam fluxes from a thermionic electron source, the C-atom knockout rate seems to be comparable to the rate of carbon ad-atom attraction and accumulation at the e-beam/graphene interface (i.e., Rknockout ≈ Raccumulation). Working at this unique regime has allowed the study of carbon ad-atom migration as well as the influence of various substrate materials on e-beam sculpting of graphene. We also show that this information was pivotal to fabricating functional graphene nanopores for studying DNA with increased spatial resolution which is attributed to atomically thin membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanopore; graphene; DNA; sequencing; single molecule detection; DNA detection; ad-atom nanopore; graphene; DNA; sequencing; single molecule detection; DNA detection; ad-atom

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Freedman, K.J.; Goyal, G.; Ahn, C.W.; Kim, M.J. Substrate Dependent Ad-Atom Migration on Graphene and the Impact on Electron-Beam Sculpting Functional Nanopores. Sensors 2017, 17, 1091.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top