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Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1091; doi:10.3390/s17051091

Substrate Dependent Ad-Atom Migration on Graphene and the Impact on Electron-Beam Sculpting Functional Nanopores

1
Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
2
Global Viral, 425 California St., San Francisco, CA 90104, USA
3
Quantum Biosystems, 1455 Adams Dr., Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
4
Nano-Materials Laboratory, National Nanofab Center, Daejeon 305-806, Korea
5
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Masateru Taniguchi
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Molecule Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3053 KB, uploaded 10 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

The use of atomically thin graphene for molecular sensing has attracted tremendous attention over the years and, in some instances, could displace the use of classical thin films. For nanopore sensing, graphene must be suspended over an aperture so that a single pore can be formed in the free-standing region. Nanopores are typically drilled using an electron beam (e-beam) which is tightly focused until a desired pore size is obtained. E-beam sculpting of graphene however is not just dependent on the ability to displace atoms but also the ability to hinder the migration of ad-atoms on the surface of graphene. Using relatively lower e-beam fluxes from a thermionic electron source, the C-atom knockout rate seems to be comparable to the rate of carbon ad-atom attraction and accumulation at the e-beam/graphene interface (i.e., Rknockout ≈ Raccumulation). Working at this unique regime has allowed the study of carbon ad-atom migration as well as the influence of various substrate materials on e-beam sculpting of graphene. We also show that this information was pivotal to fabricating functional graphene nanopores for studying DNA with increased spatial resolution which is attributed to atomically thin membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanopore; graphene; DNA; sequencing; single molecule detection; DNA detection; ad-atom nanopore; graphene; DNA; sequencing; single molecule detection; DNA detection; ad-atom
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Freedman, K.J.; Goyal, G.; Ahn, C.W.; Kim, M.J. Substrate Dependent Ad-Atom Migration on Graphene and the Impact on Electron-Beam Sculpting Functional Nanopores. Sensors 2017, 17, 1091.

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