Next Article in Journal
A Novel Method of Localization for Moving Objects with an Alternating Magnetic Field
Next Article in Special Issue
Dynamic Construction Scheme for Virtualization Security Service in Software-Defined Networks
Previous Article in Journal
A New Method for Single-Epoch Ambiguity Resolution with Indoor Pseudolite Positioning
Previous Article in Special Issue
Accurate Ambient Noise Assessment Using Smartphones
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 916; doi:10.3390/s17040916

Suitability of Strain Gage Sensors for Integration into Smart Sport Equipment: A Golf Club Example

1
Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Network Based Intelligent Computing, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China
2
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yunchuan Sun, Zhipeng Cai and Antonio Jara
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5590 KB, uploaded 21 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Wearable devices and smart sport equipment are being increasingly used in amateur and professional sports. Smart sport equipment employs various sensors for detecting its state and actions. The correct choice of the most appropriate sensor(s) is of paramount importance for efficient and successful operation of sport equipment. When integrated into the sport equipment, ideal sensors are unobstructive, and do not change the functionality of the equipment. The article focuses on experiments for identification and selection of sensors that are suitable for the integration into a golf club with the final goal of their use in real time biofeedback applications. We tested two orthogonally affixed strain gage (SG) sensors, a 3-axis accelerometer, and a 3-axis gyroscope. The strain gage sensors are calibrated and validated in the laboratory environment by a highly accurate Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) optical tracking system. Field test results show that different types of golf swing and improper movement in early phases of golf swing can be detected with strain gage sensors attached to the shaft of the golf club. Thus they are suitable for biofeedback applications to help golfers to learn repetitive golf swings. It is suggested that the use of strain gage sensors can improve the golf swing technical error detection accuracy and that strain gage sensors alone are enough for basic golf swing analysis. Our final goal is to be able to acquire and analyze as many parameters of a smart golf club in real time during the entire duration of the swing. This would give us the ability to design mobile and cloud biofeedback applications with terminal or concurrent feedback that will enable us to speed-up motor skill learning in golf. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart sport equipment; sensor selection; strain gage sensor; gyroscope; accelerometer; golf swing analysis smart sport equipment; sensor selection; strain gage sensor; gyroscope; accelerometer; golf swing analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Umek, A.; Zhang, Y.; Tomažič, S.; Kos, A. Suitability of Strain Gage Sensors for Integration into Smart Sport Equipment: A Golf Club Example. Sensors 2017, 17, 916.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top