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Sensors 2017, 17(3), 624; doi:10.3390/s17030624

A Geographic Information-Assisted Temporal Mixture Analysis for Addressing the Issue of Endmember Class and Endmember Spectra Variability

1
Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA
2
School of Hydraulic Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114, Hunan, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Assefa M. Melesse
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Abstract

Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is a common approach for parameterizing biophysical fractions of urban environment and widely applied in many fields. For successful SMA, the selection of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been assumed as the most important step. Thanks to the spatial heterogeneity of natural and urban landscapes, the variability of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been widely considered as the profound error source in SMA. To address the challenging problems, we proposed a geographic information-assisted temporal mixture analysis (GATMA). Specifically, a logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between land use/land covers and surrounding socio-economic factors, and a classification tree method was used to identify the present status of endmember classes throughout the whole study area. Furthermore, an ordinary kriging analysis was employed to generate a spatially varying endmember spectra at all pixels in the remote sensing image. As a consequence, a fully constrained temporal mixture analysis was conducted for examining the fractional land use land covers. Results show that the proposed GATMA achieved a promising accuracy with an RMSE of 6.81%, SE of 1.29% and MAE of 2.6%. In addition, comparative analysis result illustrates that a significant accuracy improvement has been found in the whole study area and both developed and less developed areas, and this demonstrates that the variability of endmember class and endmember spectra is essential for unmixing analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: logistic regression; classification tree; ordinary kriging; endmember class; endmember variability; temporal mixture analysis logistic regression; classification tree; ordinary kriging; endmember class; endmember variability; temporal mixture analysis
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Li, W.; Wu, C. A Geographic Information-Assisted Temporal Mixture Analysis for Addressing the Issue of Endmember Class and Endmember Spectra Variability. Sensors 2017, 17, 624.

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