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Sensors 2017, 17(3), 578; doi:10.3390/s17030578

Assessing the Spectral Properties of Sunlit and Shaded Components in Rice Canopies with Near-Ground Imaging Spectroscopy Data

1
National Engineering and Technology Center for Information Agriculture, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Information Agriculture, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Center for Spatial Technologies and Remote Sensing (CSTARS), Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8617, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Huajun Tang, Wenbin Wu and Yun Shi
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Smart Sensing of Agricultural Land Systems)
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Abstract

Monitoring the components of crop canopies with remote sensing can help us understand the within-canopy variation in spectral properties and resolve the sources of uncertainties in the spectroscopic estimation of crop foliar chemistry. To date, the spectral properties of leaves and panicles in crop canopies and the shadow effects on their spectral variation remain poorly understood due to the insufficient spatial resolution of traditional spectroscopy data. To address this issue, we used a near-ground imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial and spectral resolutions to examine the spectral properties of rice leaves and panicles in sunlit and shaded portions of canopies and evaluate the effect of shadows on the relationships between spectral indices of leaves and foliar chlorophyll content. The results demonstrated that the shaded components exhibited lower reflectance amplitude but stronger absorption features than their sunlit counterparts. Specifically, the reflectance spectra of panicles had unique double-peak absorption features in the blue region. Among the examined vegetation indices (VIs), significant differences were found in the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) between leaves and panicles and further differences in the transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI) between sunlit and shaded components. After an image-level separation of canopy components with these two indices, statistical analyses revealed much higher correlations between canopy chlorophyll content and both PRI and TCARI of shaded leaves than for those of sunlit leaves. In contrast, the red edge chlorophyll index (CIRed-edge) exhibited the strongest correlations with canopy chlorophyll content among all vegetation indices examined regardless of shadows on leaves. These findings represent significant advances in the understanding of rice leaf and panicle spectral properties under natural light conditions and demonstrate the significance of commonly overlooked shaded leaves in the canopy when correlated to canopy chlorophyll content. View Full-Text
Keywords: shadow; hyperspectral; rice leaf; rice panicle; red edge; spectral index; chlorophyll content shadow; hyperspectral; rice leaf; rice panicle; red edge; spectral index; chlorophyll content
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhou, K.; Deng, X.; Yao, X.; Tian, Y.; Cao, W.; Zhu, Y.; Ustin, S.L.; Cheng, T. Assessing the Spectral Properties of Sunlit and Shaded Components in Rice Canopies with Near-Ground Imaging Spectroscopy Data. Sensors 2017, 17, 578.

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