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Sensors 2017, 17(3), 557; doi:10.3390/s17030557

The Smartphone-Based Offline Indoor Location Competition at IPIN 2016: Analysis and Future Work

Institute of New Imaging Technologies, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castelló, Spain
Centre for Automation and Robotics (CAR), CSIC-UPM, 28500 Arganda del Rey, Spain
Faculty for Geomatics, Computer Science and Mathematics, HFT Stuttgart—University of Applied Sciences, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany
Algoritmi Research Centre, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
BlockDox, 129 Finchley Road, NW3 6HY London, UK
Faculty of Computer Science and Business Information Systems, University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt, 97070 Würzburg, Germany
MICA Institute (HUST-CNRS/UMI2954-Grenoble INP), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 100000 Hanoi, Vietnam
Centro de Computação Gráfica (CCG), 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Pervasive Interaction/LIG, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes, Inria, LIG, F-38000 Grenoble, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smartphone-based Pedestrian Localization and Navigation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8515 KB, uploaded 10 March 2017]   |  


This paper presents the analysis and discussion of the off-site localization competition track, which took place during the Seventh International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN 2016). Five international teams proposed different strategies for smartphone-based indoor positioning using the same reference data. The competitors were provided with several smartphone-collected signal datasets, some of which were used for training (known trajectories), and others for evaluating (unknown trajectories). The competition permits a coherent evaluation method of the competitors’ estimations, where inside information to fine-tune their systems is not offered, and thus provides, in our opinion, a good starting point to introduce a fair comparison between the smartphone-based systems found in the literature. The methodology, experience, feedback from competitors and future working lines are described. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor localization technology; indoor navigation; smartphone applications; evaluation and benchmarking indoor localization technology; indoor navigation; smartphone applications; evaluation and benchmarking

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Torres-Sospedra, J.; Jiménez, A.R.; Knauth, S.; Moreira, A.; Beer, Y.; Fetzer, T.; Ta, V.-C.; Montoliu, R.; Seco, F.; Mendoza-Silva, G.M.; Belmonte, O.; Koukofikis, A.; Nicolau, M.J.; Costa, A.; Meneses, F.; Ebner, F.; Deinzer, F.; Vaufreydaz, D.; Dao, T.-K.; Castelli, E. The Smartphone-Based Offline Indoor Location Competition at IPIN 2016: Analysis and Future Work. Sensors 2017, 17, 557.

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