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Sensors 2017, 17(2), 299; doi:10.3390/s17020299

A 3D Human-Machine Integrated Design and Analysis Framework for Squat Exercises with a Smith Machine

1
Intelligence and Interaction Lab., Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University, 77 Jeongneung-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707, Korea
2
AnyBody Technology A/S, Niels Jernes Vej 10, Aalborg East 9220, Denmark
3
Biomechanics Lab, Department of Sports Science, Kookmin University, 77 Jeongneung-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panicos Kyriacou
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [10383 KB, uploaded 7 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional design and evaluation framework and process based on a probabilistic-based motion synthesis algorithm and biomechanical analysis system for the design of the Smith machine and squat training programs. Moreover, we implemented a prototype system to validate the proposed framework. The framework consists of an integrated human–machine–environment model as well as a squat motion synthesis system and biomechanical analysis system. In the design and evaluation process, we created an integrated model in which interactions between a human body and machine or the ground are modeled as joints with constraints at contact points. Next, we generated Smith squat motion using the motion synthesis program based on a Gaussian process regression algorithm with a set of given values for independent variables. Then, using the biomechanical analysis system, we simulated joint moments and muscle activities from the input of the integrated model and squat motion. We validated the model and algorithm through physical experiments measuring the electromyography (EMG) signals, ground forces, and squat motions as well as through a biomechanical simulation of muscle forces. The proposed approach enables the incorporation of biomechanics in the design process and reduces the need for physical experiments and prototypes in the development of training programs and new Smith machines. View Full-Text
Keywords: squat; biomechanical analysis; musculoskeletal model; Gaussian process regression; motion generation; digital human modeling squat; biomechanical analysis; musculoskeletal model; Gaussian process regression; motion generation; digital human modeling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lee, H.; Jung, M.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, S.H. A 3D Human-Machine Integrated Design and Analysis Framework for Squat Exercises with a Smith Machine. Sensors 2017, 17, 299.

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