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Sensors 2017, 17(2), 271; doi:10.3390/s17020271

Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Communications and Navigation, 82234Wessling, Germany
Academic Editor: Felipe Jimenez
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Autonomous Road Vehicles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4038 KB, uploaded 31 January 2017]   |  


Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability. View Full-Text
Keywords: vehicle sensors; laser scanner; GNSS; cooperative; vehicle-to-vehicle; relative positioning; localization vehicle sensors; laser scanner; GNSS; cooperative; vehicle-to-vehicle; relative positioning; localization

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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de Ponte Müller, F. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles. Sensors 2017, 17, 271.

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