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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2952; doi:10.3390/s17122952

Sensors and Biosensors for C-Reactive Protein, Temperature and pH, and Their Applications for Monitoring Wound Healing: A Review

1
Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (IFC-CNR), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Moruzzi 13, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Dermatology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56126 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems 2017)
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Abstract

Wound assessment is usually performed in hospitals or specialized labs. However, since patients spend most of their time at home, a remote real time wound monitoring would help providing a better care and improving the healing rate. This review describes the advances in sensors and biosensors for monitoring the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), temperature and pH in wounds. These three parameters can be used as qualitative biomarkers to assess the wound status and the effectiveness of therapy. CRP biosensors can be classified in: (a) field effect transistors, (b) optical immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance, total internal reflection, fluorescence and chemiluminescence, (c) electrochemical sensors based on potentiometry, amperometry, and electrochemical impedance, and (d) piezoresistive sensors, such as quartz crystal microbalances and microcantilevers. The last section reports the most recent developments for wearable non-invasive temperature and pH sensors suitable for wound monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: C-reactive protein; temperature; pH; sensors; biosensors; wound healing C-reactive protein; temperature; pH; sensors; biosensors; wound healing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Salvo, P.; Dini, V.; Kirchhain, A.; Janowska, A.; Oranges, T.; Chiricozzi, A.; Lomonaco, T.; Di Francesco, F.; Romanelli, M. Sensors and Biosensors for C-Reactive Protein, Temperature and pH, and Their Applications for Monitoring Wound Healing: A Review. Sensors 2017, 17, 2952.

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