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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2831; doi:10.3390/s17122831

Microwave Non-Destructive Inspection and Prediction of Modulus of Rupture and Modulus of Elasticity of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECCs) Using Dual-Frequency Correlation

1
School of Civil Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033, China
2
School of Civil Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China
3
Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Dakahlia 35516, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Technologies for Health Monitoring of Composite Structures)
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Abstract

This research article presents dual-frequency correlation models for predicting the growth of elasticity and flexural strength of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) using microwave nondestructive inspection technique. Parallel measurements of microwave properties and mechanical properties of ECC specimens were firstly undertaken in the sense of cross-disciplinary experiments. Regression models were developed via means of nonlinear regression to the measured data. The purpose of the study is: (i) to monitor the flexural strength and elasticity growth; and (ii) to predict their mature values under the influence of different initial water contents, via microwave effective conductance at early ages. It has been demonstrated that both the modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) can be accurately modeled and correlated by microwave conductance using exponential functions. The moduli developed as a function of conductance whereas the regression coefficient exhibited a linear relation with water-to-binder ratio. These findings have highlighted the effectiveness of the microwave non-destructive technique in inspecting the variation of liquid phase morphology of ECCs. The dual-frequency correlation can be used for structural health monitoring, which is not only for prediction but also provides a means of verification. View Full-Text
Keywords: engineered cementitious composite (ECC); electrical conductance; flexural strength; microwave non-destructive inspection (mNDI); modulus of rupture; modulus of elasticity; strength prediction; rectangular waveguide sensor; structural health monitoring; water-to-binder ratio engineered cementitious composite (ECC); electrical conductance; flexural strength; microwave non-destructive inspection (mNDI); modulus of rupture; modulus of elasticity; strength prediction; rectangular waveguide sensor; structural health monitoring; water-to-binder ratio
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chung, K.L.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y.; Sun, L.; Ghannam, M. Microwave Non-Destructive Inspection and Prediction of Modulus of Rupture and Modulus of Elasticity of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECCs) Using Dual-Frequency Correlation. Sensors 2017, 17, 2831.

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