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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2714; doi:10.3390/s17122714

Monitoring the Wobbe Index of Natural Gas Using Fiber-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

1
Laboratory for Gas Sensors, Department of Microsystems Engineering–IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 102, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
2
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Staudtstraße 2, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
3
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore
4
Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM, Heidenhofstraße 8, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
5
Department of Computer Science, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Francisco Tomás y Valiente 11, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopy Based Sensors)
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Abstract

The fast and reliable analysis of the natural gas composition requires the simultaneous quantification of numerous gaseous components. To this end, fiber-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to detect most components in a single measurement using a single laser source. However, practical issues such as detection limit, gas exchange time and background Raman signals from the fiber material still pose obstacles to utilizing the scheme in real-world settings. This paper compares the performance of two types of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF), namely photonic bandgap PCF and kagomé-style PCF, and assesses their potential for online determination of the Wobbe index. In contrast to bandgap PCF, kagomé-PCF allows for reliable detection of Raman-scattered photons even below 1200 cm−1, which in turn enables fast and comprehensive assessment of the natural gas quality of arbitrary mixtures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; wobbe index; photonic crystal fiber; kagomé; fiber enhanced; natural gas Raman spectroscopy; wobbe index; photonic crystal fiber; kagomé; fiber enhanced; natural gas
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sandfort, V.; Trabold, B.M.; Abdolvand, A.; Bolwien, C.; Russell, P.S.J.; Wöllenstein, J.; Palzer, S. Monitoring the Wobbe Index of Natural Gas Using Fiber-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. Sensors 2017, 17, 2714.

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