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Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2565; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112565

Optimal Quantization Scheme for Data-Efficient Target Tracking via UWSNs Using Quantized Measurements

1
State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Hangzhou 310027, China
2
College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
3
School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Target tracking is one of the broad applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). However, as a result of the temporal and spatial variability of acoustic channels, underwater acoustic communications suffer from an extremely limited bandwidth. In order to reduce network congestion, it is important to shorten the length of the data transmitted from local sensors to the fusion center by quantization. Although quantization can reduce bandwidth cost, it also brings about bad tracking performance as a result of information loss after quantization. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an optimal quantization-based target tracking scheme. It improves the tracking performance of low-bit quantized measurements by minimizing the additional covariance caused by quantization. The simulation demonstrates that our scheme performs much better than the conventional uniform quantization-based target tracking scheme and the increment of the data length affects our scheme only a little. Its tracking performance improves by only 4.4% from 2- to 3-bit, which means our scheme weakly depends on the number of data bits. Moreover, our scheme also weakly depends on the number of participate sensors, and it can work well in sparse sensor networks. In a 6 × 6 × 6 sensor network, compared with 4 × 4 × 4 sensor networks, the number of participant sensors increases by 334.92%, while the tracking accuracy using 1-bit quantized measurements improves by only 50.77%. Overall, our optimal quantization-based target tracking scheme can achieve the pursuit of data-efficiency, which fits the requirements of low-bandwidth UWSNs. View Full-Text
Keywords: optimal quantization; data-efficiency; target tracking; underwater wireless sensor networks optimal quantization; data-efficiency; target tracking; underwater wireless sensor networks
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Zhang, S.; Chen, H.; Liu, M.; Zhang, Q. Optimal Quantization Scheme for Data-Efficient Target Tracking via UWSNs Using Quantized Measurements. Sensors 2017, 17, 2565.

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