Next Article in Journal
The Application of EM38: Determination of Soil Parameters, Selection of Soil Sampling Points and Use in Agriculture and Archaeology
Next Article in Special Issue
Characterization and Differentiation of Petroleum-Derived Products by E-Nose Fingerprints
Previous Article in Journal
An FBG Optical Approach to Thermal Expansion Measurements under Hydrostatic Pressure
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2541; doi:10.3390/s17112541

Improved Durability and Sensitivity of Bitterness-Sensing Membrane for Medicines

Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Intelligent Sensor Technology, Inc., 5-1-1 Onna, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0032, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Tongues and Electronic Noses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6157 KB, uploaded 13 November 2017]   |  


This paper reports the improvement of a bitterness sensor based on a lipid polymer membrane consisting of phosphoric acid di-n-decyl ester (PADE) as a lipid and bis(1-butylpentyl) adipate (BBPA) and tributyl o-acetylcitrate (TBAC) as plasticizers. Although the commercialized bitterness sensor (BT0) has high sensitivity and selectivity to the bitterness of medicines, the sensor response gradually decreases to almost zero after two years at room temperature and humidity in a laboratory. To reveal the reason for the deterioration of the response, we investigated sensor membranes by measuring the membrane potential, contact angle, and adsorption amount, as well as by performing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We found that the change in the surface charge density caused by the hydrolysis of TBAC led to the deterioration of the response. The acidic environment generated by PADE promoted TBAC hydrolysis. Finally, we succeeded in fabricating a new membrane for sensing the bitterness of medicines with higher durability and sensitivity by adjusting the proportions of the lipid and plasticizers. View Full-Text
Keywords: taste sensor; bitterness sensor; response deterioration; quinine hydrochloride taste sensor; bitterness sensor; response deterioration; quinine hydrochloride

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, X.; Onitake, H.; Huang, Z.; Shiino, T.; Tahara, Y.; Yatabe, R.; Ikezaki, H.; Toko, K. Improved Durability and Sensitivity of Bitterness-Sensing Membrane for Medicines. Sensors 2017, 17, 2541.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top