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Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2446; doi:10.3390/s17112446

Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise

1,2
and
1,2,*
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
2
Hong Kong Branch of National Rail Transit Electrification and Automation Engineering Technology Research Center, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors and Their Applications)
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Abstract

We report, theoretically and experimentally, the realization of a high detection performance in a novel magnetoelectric (ME) transverse gradient sensor based on the large ME effect and the magnetic field gradient (MFG) technique in a pair of magnetically-biased, electrically-shielded, and mechanically-enclosed ME composites having a transverse orientation and an axial separation. The output voltage of the gradient sensor is directly obtained from the transverse MFG-induced difference in ME voltage between the two ME composites and is calibrated against transverse MFGs to give a high detection sensitivity of 0.4–30.6 V/(T/m), a strong common-mode magnetic field noise rejection rate of <−14.5 dB, a small input-output nonlinearity of <10 ppm, and a low gradient noise of 0.16–620 nT/m/ Hz in a broad frequency range of 1 Hz–170 kHz under a small baseline of 35 mm. An analysis of experimental gradient noise spectra obtained in a magnetically-unshielded laboratory environment reveals the domination of the pink (1/f) noise, dielectric loss noise, and power-frequency noise below 3 kHz, in addition to the circuit noise above 3 kHz, in the gradient sensor. The high detection performance, together with the added merit of passive and direct ME conversion by the large ME effect in the ME composites, makes the gradient sensor suitable for the passive, direct, and broadband detection of transverse MFGs. View Full-Text
Keywords: ambient noise suppression; baseline; magnetic field gradient; magnetoelectric effect; transverse gradient sensor ambient noise suppression; baseline; magnetic field gradient; magnetoelectric effect; transverse gradient sensor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, M.; Or, S.W. Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise. Sensors 2017, 17, 2446.

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