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Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2181; doi:10.3390/s17102181

A New Proxy Measurement Algorithm with Application to the Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Using Wearable Sensors

1
Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
2
INSIGNEO Institute for in Silico Medicine, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
3
School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
5
The EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Through-life Engineering Services, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
6
Vibration Engineering Section, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, North Park Road, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in UK)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1001 KB, uploaded 25 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Measurement of the ground reaction forces (GRF) during walking is typically limited to laboratory settings, and only short observations using wearable pressure insoles have been reported so far. In this study, a new proxy measurement method is proposed to estimate the vertical component of the GRF (vGRF) from wearable accelerometer signals. The accelerations are used as the proxy variable. An orthogonal forward regression algorithm (OFR) is employed to identify the dynamic relationships between the proxy variables and the measured vGRF using pressure-sensing insoles. The obtained model, which represents the connection between the proxy variable and the vGRF, is then used to predict the latter. The results have been validated using pressure insoles data collected from nine healthy individuals under two outdoor walking tasks in non-laboratory settings. The results show that the vGRFs can be reconstructed with high accuracy (with an average prediction error of less than 5.0%) using only one wearable sensor mounted at the waist (L5, fifth lumbar vertebra). Proxy measures with different sensor positions are also discussed. Results show that the waist acceleration-based proxy measurement is more stable with less inter-task and inter-subject variability than the proxy measures based on forehead level accelerations. The proposed proxy measure provides a promising low-cost method for monitoring ground reaction forces in real-life settings and introduces a novel generic approach for replacing the direct determination of difficult to measure variables in many applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: proxy measurement; vertical ground reaction force; NARMAX; orthogonal forward regression proxy measurement; vertical ground reaction force; NARMAX; orthogonal forward regression
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.15131/shef.data.5341309
    Link: https://doi.org/10.15131/shef.data.5341309
    Description: Data for the paper "A new proxy measurement algorithm with applications to estimation of vertical ground reaction forces using wearable sensors"

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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, Y.; Storm, F.; Zhao, Y.; Billings, S.A.; Pavic, A.; Mazzà, C.; Guo, L.-Z. A New Proxy Measurement Algorithm with Application to the Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Using Wearable Sensors. Sensors 2017, 17, 2181.

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