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Sensors 2017, 17(1), 58; doi:10.3390/s17010058

Odor-Sensing System to Support Social Participation of People Suffering from Incontinence

1
Laboratory for Gas Sensors, Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Freiburg 79110, Germany
2
Steinbeis Transfer Center, Social Planning, Qualification and Innovation, Meersburg 88709, Germany
3
Institute for Microsystems Technology, Mechanical and Medical Engineering, Furtwangen University, Furtwangen 78120, Germany
4
Signal Processing Research Group (ReSP), Mechanical and Medical Engineering, Furtwangen University, Furtwangen 78120, Germany
5
Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques (IPM), Freiburg 79110, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Takeshi Onodera and Kiyoshi Toko
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olfactory and Gustatory Sensors)
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Abstract

This manuscript describes the design considerations, implementation, and laboratory validation of an odor sensing module whose purpose is to support people that suffer from incontinence. Because of the requirements expressed by the affected end-users the odor sensing unit is realized as a portable accessory that may be connected to any pre-existing smart device. We have opted for a low-cost, low-power consuming metal oxide based gas detection approach to highlight the viability of developing an inexpensive yet helpful odor recognition technology. The system consists of a hotplate employing, inkjet-printed p-type semiconducting layers of copper(II) oxide, and chromium titanium oxide. Both functional layers are characterized with respect to their gas-sensitive behavior towards humidity, ammonia, methylmercaptan, and dimethylsulfide and we demonstrate detection limits in the parts-per-billion range for the two latter gases. Employing a temperature variation scheme that reads out the layer’s resistivity in a steady-state, we use each sensor chip as a virtual array. With this setup, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting odors associated with incontinence. View Full-Text
Keywords: ambient assisted living; inkjet-printed p-type semiconducting metal oxide; hotplate; autonomous odor detection device; wireless connectivity ambient assisted living; inkjet-printed p-type semiconducting metal oxide; hotplate; autonomous odor detection device; wireless connectivity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ortiz Pérez, A.; Kallfaß-de Frenes, V.; Filbert, A.; Kneer, J.; Bierer, B.; Held, P.; Klein, P.; Wöllenstein, J.; Benyoucef, D.; Kallfaß, S.; Mescheder, U.; Palzer, S. Odor-Sensing System to Support Social Participation of People Suffering from Incontinence. Sensors 2017, 17, 58.

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