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Sensors 2017, 17(1), 22; doi:10.3390/s17010022

Robust Functionalization of Large Microelectrode Arrays by Using Pulsed Potentiostatic Deposition

1
ETH Zurich, Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, Bio Engineering Laboratory, Mattenstrasse 26, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland
2
Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Sensing Facility at the Bindley Bioscience Center and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
3
Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrew J. Mason, Haitao Li and Yuning Yang
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Sensor Arrays and Array Signal Processing)
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Abstract

Surface modification of microelectrodes is a central step in the development of microsensors and microsensor arrays. Here, we present an electrodeposition scheme based on voltage pulses. Key features of this method are uniformity in the deposited electrode coatings, flexibility in the overall deposition area, i.e., the sizes and number of the electrodes to be coated, and precise control of the surface texture. Deposition and characterization of four different materials are demonstrated, including layers of high-surface-area platinum, gold, conducting polymer poly(ethylenedioxythiophene), also known as PEDOT, and the non-conducting polymer poly(phenylenediamine), also known as PPD. The depositions were conducted using a fully integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chip with an array of 1024 microelectrodes. The pulsed potentiostatic deposition scheme is particularly suitable for functionalization of individual electrodes or electrode subsets of large integrated microelectrode arrays: the required deposition waveforms are readily available in an integrated system, the same deposition parameters can be used to functionalize the surface of either single electrodes or large arrays of thousands of electrodes, and the deposition method proved to be robust and reproducible for all materials tested. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrodeposition; microelectrode array; pulse potential waveform; voltage pulses; pulsed potentiostatic deposition; complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS); platinum; gold; poly(phenylenediamine) PPD; poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT electrodeposition; microelectrode array; pulse potential waveform; voltage pulses; pulsed potentiostatic deposition; complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS); platinum; gold; poly(phenylenediamine) PPD; poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rothe, J.; Frey, O.; Madangopal, R.; Rickus, J.; Hierlemann, A. Robust Functionalization of Large Microelectrode Arrays by Using Pulsed Potentiostatic Deposition. Sensors 2017, 17, 22.

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