Next Article in Journal
An Analysis on Sensor Locations of the Human Body for Wearable Fall Detection Devices: Principles and Practice
Next Article in Special Issue
Data-Aware Retrodiction for Asynchronous Harmonic Measurement in a Cyber-Physical Energy System
Previous Article in Journal
A Network Coverage Information-Based Sensor Registry System for IoT Environments
Previous Article in Special Issue
Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1166; doi:10.3390/s16081166

Computation and Communication Evaluation of an Authentication Mechanism for Time-Triggered Networked Control Systems

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA
2
Institute for Software Integrated Systems (ISIS), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Albert M. K. Cheng
Received: 2 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time and Cyber-Physical Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [791 KB, uploaded 25 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

In modern networked control applications, confidentiality and integrity are important features to address in order to prevent against attacks. Moreover, network control systems are a fundamental part of the communication components of current cyber-physical systems (e.g., automotive communications). Many networked control systems employ Time-Triggered (TT) architectures that provide mechanisms enabling the exchange of precise and synchronous messages. TT systems have computation and communication constraints, and with the aim to enable secure communications in the network, it is important to evaluate the computational and communication overhead of implementing secure communication mechanisms. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the effects of adding a Hash-based Message Authentication (HMAC) to TT networked control systems. The contributions of the paper include (1) the analysis and experimental validation of the communication overhead, as well as a scalability analysis that utilizes the experimental result for both wired and wireless platforms and (2) an experimental evaluation of the computational overhead of HMAC based on a kernel-level Linux implementation. An automotive application is used as an example, and the results show that it is feasible to implement a secure communication mechanism without interfering with the existing automotive controller execution times. The methods and results of the paper can be used for evaluating the performance impact of security mechanisms and, thus, for the design of secure wired and wireless TT networked control systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-trigger architectures; wireless TTA; secure messages; cyber-physical systems; timing and performance analysis; HMAC time-trigger architectures; wireless TTA; secure messages; cyber-physical systems; timing and performance analysis; HMAC
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Martins, G.; Moondra, A.; Dubey, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Koutsoukos, X.D. Computation and Communication Evaluation of an Authentication Mechanism for Time-Triggered Networked Control Systems. Sensors 2016, 16, 1166.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top