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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1086; doi:10.3390/s16071086

Comparison of Three Non-Imaging Angle-Diversity Receivers as Input Sensors of Nodes for Indoor Infrared Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Simulation

1
Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38203 La Laguna (Tenerife), Spain
2
Departamento de Señales y Comunicaciones, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), 35017 Las Palmas (Gran Canaria), Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3294 KB, uploaded 14 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

In general, the use of angle-diversity receivers makes it possible to reduce the impact of ambient light noise, path loss and multipath distortion, in part by exploiting the fact that they often receive the desired signal from different directions. Angle-diversity detection can be performed using a composite receiver with multiple detector elements looking in different directions. These are called non-imaging angle-diversity receivers. In this paper, a comparison of three non-imaging angle-diversity receivers as input sensors of nodes for an indoor infrared (IR) wireless sensor network is presented. The receivers considered are the conventional angle-diversity receiver (CDR), the sectored angle-diversity receiver (SDR), and the self-orienting receiver (SOR), which have been proposed or studied by research groups in Spain. To this end, the effective signal-collection area of the three receivers is modelled and a Monte-Carlo-based ray-tracing algorithm is implemented which allows us to investigate the effect on the signal to noise ratio and main IR channel parameters, such as path loss and rms delay spread, of using the three receivers in conjunction with different combination techniques in IR links operating at low bit rates. Based on the results of the simulations, we show that the use of a conventional angle-diversity receiver in conjunction with the equal-gain combining technique provides the solution with the best signal to noise ratio, the lowest computational capacity and the lowest transmitted power requirements, which comprise the main limitations for sensor nodes in an indoor infrared wireless sensor network. View Full-Text
Keywords: angle-diversity; sensor network; infrared channel; simulation; signal to noise ratio angle-diversity; sensor network; infrared channel; simulation; signal to noise ratio
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mendoza, B.R.; Rodríguez, S.; Pérez-Jiménez, R.; Ayala, A.; González, O. Comparison of Three Non-Imaging Angle-Diversity Receivers as Input Sensors of Nodes for Indoor Infrared Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Simulation. Sensors 2016, 16, 1086.

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