Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Quantum Random Number Generation Using a Quanta Image Sensor
Previous Article in Journal
Robust Control for the Segway with Unknown Control Coefficient and Model Uncertainties
Previous Article in Special Issue
Single Photon Counting UV Solar-Blind Detectors Using Silicon and III-Nitride Materials
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1005; doi:10.3390/s16071005

Photon-Counting Arrays for Time-Resolved Imaging

1
Applied Quantum Architecture Lab (AQUA), Quantum Engineering Department, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628CD, The Netherlands
2
Advanced Quantum Architecture lab (AQUA), Microengineering Department, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne 1015, Switzerland
3
Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 110DD, The Netherlands
4
Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Stoppa
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-Counting Image Sensors)

Abstract

The paper presents a camera comprising 512 × 128 pixels capable of single-photon detection and gating with a maximum frame rate of 156 kfps. The photon capture is performed through a gated single-photon avalanche diode that generates a digital pulse upon photon detection and through a digital one-bit counter. Gray levels are obtained through multiple counting and accumulation, while time-resolved imaging is achieved through a 4-ns gating window controlled with subnanosecond accuracy by a field-programmable gate array. The sensor, which is equipped with microlenses to enhance its effective fill factor, was electro-optically characterized in terms of sensitivity and uniformity. Several examples of capture of fast events are shown to demonstrate the suitability of the approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: single-photon avalanche diode; SPAD; fluorescence; fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy; FLIM; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; FCS single-photon avalanche diode; SPAD; fluorescence; fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy; FLIM; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; FCS
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Antolovic, I.M.; Burri, S.; Hoebe, R.A.; Maruyama, Y.; Bruschini, C.; Charbon, E. Photon-Counting Arrays for Time-Resolved Imaging. Sensors 2016, 16, 1005.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top