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Sensors 2016, 16(6), 943; doi:10.3390/s16060943

FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Department of Wireless and Communication Technology, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technolog, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
Research Centre of Excellence for Wireless and Photonic Network (WIPNET), Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ignacio Bravo, Esther Palomar, Alfredo Gardel and José Luis Lázaro
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trusted and Secure Wireless Sensor Network Designs and Deployments)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1035 KB, uploaded 22 June 2016]   |  


Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol’s semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor network; node selection; malicious nodes; routing protocol; security; fuzzy logic; geographic forwarding wireless sensor network; node selection; malicious nodes; routing protocol; security; fuzzy logic; geographic forwarding

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Umar, I.A.; Mohd Hanapi, Z.; Sali, A.; Zulkarnain, Z.A. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 943.

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