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Sensors 2016, 16(4), 542; doi:10.3390/s16040542

Graphite Based Electrode for ECG Monitoring: Evaluation under Freshwater and Saltwater Conditions

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 460 Iksandeaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea
2
Department of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 460 Iksandeaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Steffen Leonhardt and Daniel Teichmann
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noninvasive Biomedical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5888 KB, uploaded 15 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

We proposed new electrodes that are applicable for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring under freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions. Our proposed electrodes are made of graphite pencil lead (GPL), a general-purpose writing pencil. We have fabricated two types of electrode: a pencil lead solid type (PLS) electrode and a pencil lead powder type (PLP) electrode. In order to assess the qualities of the PLS and PLP electrodes, we compared their performance with that of a commercial Ag/AgCl electrode, under a total of seven different conditions: dry, freshwater immersion with/without movement, post-freshwater wet condition, saltwater immersion with/without movement, and post-saltwater wet condition. In both dry and post-freshwater wet conditions, all ECG-recorded PQRST waves were clearly discernible, with all types of electrodes, Ag/AgCl, PLS, and PLP. On the other hand, under the freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions with/without movement, as well as post-saltwater wet conditions, we found that the proposed PLS and PLP electrodes provided better ECG waveform quality, with significant statistical differences compared with the quality provided by Ag/AgCl electrodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphite; pencil lead; carbon; ECG electrode; dry electrode; ECG monitoring; underwater; freshwater; saltwater graphite; pencil lead; carbon; ECG electrode; dry electrode; ECG monitoring; underwater; freshwater; saltwater
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Thap, T.; Yoon, K.-H.; Lee, J. Graphite Based Electrode for ECG Monitoring: Evaluation under Freshwater and Saltwater Conditions. Sensors 2016, 16, 542.

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