Next Article in Journal
A Simple Interface for 3D Position Estimation of a Mobile Robot with Single Camera
Next Article in Special Issue
Extracting Objects for Aerial Manipulation on UAVs Using Low Cost Stereo Sensors
Previous Article in Journal
Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Crowd-Sourcing Indoor Localization Algorithm via Optical Camera on a Smartphone Assisted by Wi-Fi Fingerprint RSSI
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 441; doi:10.3390/s16040441

Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder

1
Key Laboratory of Advanced Process Control for Light Industry, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
2
Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
3
National Institute of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, 310 Nongsaengmyeong-ro, Wansan-gu, Jueonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 54875, Korea
4
School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
5
Food Quality, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging: Sensors and Technologies)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2210 KB, uploaded 25 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm–5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5–1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm–3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: penetration depth; hyperspectral imaging; milk powder; PLS-DA penetration depth; hyperspectral imaging; milk powder; PLS-DA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, M.; Kim, M.S.; Chao, K.; Qin, J.; Mo, C.; Esquerre, C.; Delwiche, S.; Zhu, Q. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder. Sensors 2016, 16, 441.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top