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Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2096; doi:10.3390/s16122096

Node Deployment with k-Connectivity in Sensor Networks for Crop Information Full Coverage Monitoring

1
National Engineering and Technology Center for Agriculture, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Information Agriculture, Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for the Technology and Application of Internet of Things, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Eco-Agricultural Biotechnology around Hongze Lake, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Regional Modern Agriculture & Environmental Protection, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai’an 223300, China
3
Nanjing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization of National Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing 210014, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Muhammad Imran, Athanasios V. Vasilakos, Thaier Hayajneh and Neal N. Xiong
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topology Control in Emerging Sensor Networks)

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are suitable for the continuous monitoring of crop information in large-scale farmland. The information obtained is great for regulation of crop growth and achieving high yields in precision agriculture (PA). In order to realize full coverage and k-connectivity WSN deployment for monitoring crop growth information of farmland on a large scale and to ensure the accuracy of the monitored data, a new WSN deployment method using a genetic algorithm (GA) is here proposed. The fitness function of GA was constructed based on the following WSN deployment criteria: (1) nodes must be located in the corresponding plots; (2) WSN must have k-connectivity; (3) WSN must have no communication silos; (4) the minimum distance between node and plot boundary must be greater than a specific value to prevent each node from being affected by the farmland edge effect. The deployment experiments were performed on natural farmland and on irregular farmland divided based on spatial differences of soil nutrients. Results showed that both WSNs gave full coverage, there were no communication silos, and the minimum connectivity of nodes was equal to k. The deployment was tested for different values of k and transmission distance (d) to the node. The results showed that, when d was set to 200 m, as k increased from 2 to 4 the minimum connectivity of nodes increases and is equal to k. When k was set to 2, the average connectivity of all nodes increased in a linear manner with the increase of d from 140 m to 250 m, and the minimum connectivity does not change. View Full-Text
Keywords: node deployment; k-connectivity; full coverage; communications silos; farmland scale; crop information; genetic algorithm node deployment; k-connectivity; full coverage; communications silos; farmland scale; crop information; genetic algorithm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, N.; Cao, W.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Pang, F.; Ni, J. Node Deployment with k-Connectivity in Sensor Networks for Crop Information Full Coverage Monitoring. Sensors 2016, 16, 2096.

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