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Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2015; doi:10.3390/s16122015

Localization Based on Magnetic Markers for an All-Wheel Steering Vehicle

1
Korea Railroad Research Institute, 176 Cheoldo Bangmulgwan-ro, Uiwang, Gyeonggi-do 16105, Korea
2
Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Felipe Jimenez
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Autonomous Road Vehicles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5989 KB, uploaded 29 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Real-time continuous localization is a key technology in the development of intelligent transportation systems. In these systems, it is very important to have accurate information about the position and heading angle of the vehicle at all times. The most widely implemented methods for positioning are the global positioning system (GPS), vision-based system, and magnetic marker system. Among these methods, the magnetic marker system is less vulnerable to indoor and outdoor environment conditions; moreover, it requires minimal maintenance expenses. In this paper, we present a position estimation scheme based on magnetic markers and odometry sensors for an all-wheel-steering vehicle. The heading angle of the vehicle is determined by using the position coordinates of the last two detected magnetic markers and odometer data. The instant position and heading angle of the vehicle are integrated with an extended Kalman filter to estimate the continuous position. GPS data with the real-time kinematics mode was obtained to evaluate the performance of the proposed position estimation system. The test results show that the performance of the proposed localization algorithm is accurate (mean error: 3 cm; max error: 9 cm) and reliable under unexpected missing markers or incorrect markers. View Full-Text
Keywords: all-wheel steering; autonomous vehicle; guidance control; heading angle; localization; magnetic marker system; positioning all-wheel steering; autonomous vehicle; guidance control; heading angle; localization; magnetic marker system; positioning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Byun, Y.S.; Kim, Y.C. Localization Based on Magnetic Markers for an All-Wheel Steering Vehicle. Sensors 2016, 16, 2015.

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