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Sensors 2016, 16(12), 1990; doi:10.3390/s16121990

Micro-Doppler Based Classification of Human Aquatic Activities via Transfer Learning of Convolutional Neural Networks

1
Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988, Korea
2
School of Electronics Technology, ITT Technical Institute, Clovis, CA 93612, USA
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lyles College of Engineerning, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Changzhi Li, Roberto Gómez-García and José-María Muñoz-Ferreras
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Contact Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2193 KB, uploaded 24 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Accurate classification of human aquatic activities using radar has a variety of potential applications such as rescue operations and border patrols. Nevertheless, the classification of activities on water using radar has not been extensively studied, unlike the case on dry ground, due to its unique challenge. Namely, not only is the radar cross section of a human on water small, but the micro-Doppler signatures are much noisier due to water drops and waves. In this paper, we first investigate whether discriminative signatures could be obtained for activities on water through a simulation study. Then, we show how we can effectively achieve high classification accuracy by applying deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) directly to the spectrogram of real measurement data. From the five-fold cross-validation on our dataset, which consists of five aquatic activities, we report that the conventional feature-based scheme only achieves an accuracy of 45.1%. In contrast, the DCNN trained using only the collected data attains 66.7%, and the transfer learned DCNN, which takes a DCNN pre-trained on a RGB image dataset and fine-tunes the parameters using the collected data, achieves a much higher 80.3%, which is a significant performance boost. View Full-Text
Keywords: radar; micro-Doppler signatures; aquatic activity classification; convolutional neural networks; transfer learning radar; micro-Doppler signatures; aquatic activity classification; convolutional neural networks; transfer learning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, J.; Javier, R.J.; Moon, T.; Kim, Y. Micro-Doppler Based Classification of Human Aquatic Activities via Transfer Learning of Convolutional Neural Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 1990.

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