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Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1921; doi:10.3390/s16111921

Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas

Department of Computer Engineering and Systems, University of La Laguna, La Laguna 38271, Tenerife, Spain
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in: Caballero-Gil, C.; Molina-Gil, J.; Caballero-Gil, P. Low-Cost Service to Predict and Manage Indoor Parking Spaces. In Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence. Sensing, Processing, and Using Environmental Information, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on UCAmI 2015, Puerto Varas, Chile, 1–4 December 2015; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2015; pp. 225–236.
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Academic Editors: Vladimir Villarreal and Carmelo R. García
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from UCAmI, IWAAL and AmIHEALTH 2015)
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Abstract

This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor parking; intelligent transport system; smartphone application; cellular automata; location-based service indoor parking; intelligent transport system; smartphone application; cellular automata; location-based service
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Caballero-Gil, C.; Caballero-Gil, P.; Molina-Gil, J. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas
. Sensors 2016, 16, 1921.

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