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Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1557; doi:10.3390/s16101557

Analysis of Uncertainty in a Middle-Cost Device for 3D Measurements in BIM Perspective

1
University Centre of Mérida, University of Extremadura, 06800 Mérida, Spain
2
Polytechnic School, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
3
Development Area, Provincial Council of Badajoz, 06071 Badajoz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7900 KB, uploaded 22 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Medium-cost devices equipped with sensors are being developed to get 3D measurements. Some allow for generating geometric models and point clouds. Nevertheless, the accuracy of these measurements should be evaluated, taking into account the requirements of the Building Information Model (BIM). This paper analyzes the uncertainty in outdoor/indoor three-dimensional coordinate measures and point clouds (using Spherical Accuracy Standard (SAS) methods) for Eyes Map, a medium-cost tablet manufactured by e-Capture Research & Development Company, Mérida, Spain. To achieve it, in outdoor tests, by means of this device, the coordinates of targets were measured from 1 to 6 m and cloud points were obtained. Subsequently, these were compared to the coordinates of the same targets measured by a Total Station. The Euclidean average distance error was 0.005–0.027 m for measurements by Photogrammetry and 0.013–0.021 m for the point clouds. All of them satisfy the tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the BIM Guide for 3D Imaging (General Services Administration); similar results are obtained in the indoor tests, with values of 0.022 m. In this paper, we establish the optimal distances for the observations in both, Photogrammetry and 3D Photomodeling modes (outdoor) and point out some working conditions to avoid in indoor environments. Finally, the authors discuss some recommendations for improving the performance and working methods of the device. View Full-Text
Keywords: photogrammetry; point clouds; uncertainty; constrained least squares adjustment; middle-cost device photogrammetry; point clouds; uncertainty; constrained least squares adjustment; middle-cost device
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez, A.; Naranjo, J.-M.; Jiménez, A.; González, A. Analysis of Uncertainty in a Middle-Cost Device for 3D Measurements in BIM Perspective. Sensors 2016, 16, 1557.

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