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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 21377-21393; doi:10.3390/s150921377

Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kourosh Khoshelham
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Indoor Mapping and Navigation)
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Abstract

The main approach for a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system is based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements, and the fingerprinting method is utilized to determine the user position by matching the RSS values with the pre-surveyed RSS database. To build a RSS fingerprint database is essential for an RSS based indoor positioning system, and building such a RSS fingerprint database requires lots of time and effort. As the range of the indoor environment becomes larger, labor is increased. To provide better indoor positioning services and to reduce the labor required for the establishment of the positioning system at the same time, an indoor positioning system with an appropriate spatial interpolation method is needed. In addition, the advantage of the RSS approach is that the signal strength decays as the transmission distance increases, and this signal propagation characteristic is applied to an interpolated database with the Kriging algorithm in this paper. Using the distribution of reference points (RPs) at measured points, the signal propagation model of the Wi-Fi access point (AP) in the building can be built and expressed as a function. The function, as the spatial structure of the environment, can create the RSS database quickly in different indoor environments. Thus, in this paper, a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system based on the Kriging fingerprinting method is developed. As shown in the experiment results, with a 72.2% probability, the error of the extended RSS database with Kriging is less than 3 dBm compared to the surveyed RSS database. Importantly, the positioning error of the developed Wi-Fi indoor positioning system with Kriging is reduced by 17.9% in average than that without Kriging. View Full-Text
Keywords: kriging; received signal strength database; fingerprinting; IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi); indoor positioning system kriging; received signal strength database; fingerprinting; IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi); indoor positioning system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jan, S.-S.; Yeh, S.-J.; Liu, Y.-W. Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System. Sensors 2015, 15, 21377-21393.

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