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Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19937-19967; doi:10.3390/s150819937

A Fast Robot Identification and Mapping Algorithm Based on Kinect Sensor

1,†
,
1,†
,
1,†
,
2,3
and
4,†,*
1
National School of Software, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China
2
School of Computer Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology,5 Jinhua S. Rd., Xi’an 710048, China
3
State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning W. Rd., Xi’an 710049, China
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Virginia University, 405 Fayette Pike, Montgomery, WV 25136, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yunchuan Sun
Received: 27 May 2015 / Revised: 23 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification, Information & Knowledge in the Internet of Things)

Abstract

Internet of Things (IoT) is driving innovation in an ever-growing set of application domains such as intelligent processing for autonomous robots. For an autonomous robot, one grand challenge is how to sense its surrounding environment effectively. The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with RGB-D Kinect camera sensor on robot, called RGB-D SLAM, has been developed for this purpose but some technical challenges must be addressed. Firstly, the efficiency of the algorithm cannot satisfy real-time requirements; secondly, the accuracy of the algorithm is unacceptable. In order to address these challenges, this paper proposes a set of novel improvement methods as follows. Firstly, the ORiented Brief (ORB) method is used in feature detection and descriptor extraction. Secondly, a bidirectional Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is applied to feature match. Then, the improved RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) estimation method is adopted in the motion transformation. In the meantime, high precision General Iterative Closest Points (GICP) is utilized to register a point cloud in the motion transformation optimization. To improve the accuracy of SLAM, the reduced dynamic covariance scaling (DCS) algorithm is formulated as a global optimization problem under the G2O framework. The effectiveness of the improved algorithm has been verified by testing on standard data and comparing with the ground truth obtained on Freiburg University’s datasets. The Dr Robot X80 equipped with a Kinect camera is also applied in a building corridor to verify the correctness of the improved RGB-D SLAM algorithm. With the above experiments, it can be seen that the proposed algorithm achieves higher processing speed and better accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: SLAM; Kinect; RGB-D SLAM; improved algorithm; Dr Robot X80 SLAM; Kinect; RGB-D SLAM; improved algorithm; Dr Robot X80
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Shen, P.; Zhu, G.; Wei, W.; Song, H. A Fast Robot Identification and Mapping Algorithm Based on Kinect Sensor. Sensors 2015, 15, 19937-19967.

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