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Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19251-19263; doi:10.3390/s150819251

Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators

School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14300, Espoo 00076, Finland
The preliminary results of this study were presented in the 12th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Tokyo, Japan, 22–26 September 2014.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gert F. Trommer
Received: 18 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensors and Systems)
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Abstract

Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: accelerometer; IEPE; intelligent tire; friction; vehicle accelerometer; IEPE; intelligent tire; friction; vehicle
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Niskanen, A.; Tuononen, A.J. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators. Sensors 2015, 15, 19251-19263.

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