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Sensors 2015, 15(5), 9628-9650; doi:10.3390/s150509628

Angular Displacement and Velocity Sensors Based on Coplanar Waveguides (CPWs) Loaded with S-Shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRR)

1
CIMITEC, Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
2
School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 23 March 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 23 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metamaterial-Inspired Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2142 KB, uploaded 28 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, angular displacement and angular velocity sensors based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines and S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs) are presented. The sensor consists of two parts, namely a CPW and an S-SRR, both lying on parallel planes. By this means, line-to-resonator magnetic coupling arises, the coupling level being dependent on the line-to-resonator relative angular orientation. The line-to-resonator coupling level is the key parameter responsible for modulating the amplitude of the frequency response seen between the CPW ports in the vicinity of the S-SRR fundamental resonance frequency. Specifically, an amplitude notch that can be visualized in the transmission coefficient is changed by the coupling strength, and it is characterized as the sensing variable. Thus, the relative angular orientation between the two parts is measured, when the S-SRR is attached to a rotating object. It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance. It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency. The main advantage of the proposed device is its small size directly related to the small electrical size of the S-SRR, which allows for the design of compact angular displacement and velocity sensors at low frequencies. Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently), it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale), sensitivity and dynamic range. View Full-Text
Keywords: split ring resonators; coplanar waveguide; rotation sensors; angular velocity sensors; metamaterial transmission lines split ring resonators; coplanar waveguide; rotation sensors; angular velocity sensors; metamaterial transmission lines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Naqui, J.; Coromina, J.; Karami-Horestani, A.; Fumeaux, C.; Martín, F. Angular Displacement and Velocity Sensors Based on Coplanar Waveguides (CPWs) Loaded with S-Shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRR). Sensors 2015, 15, 9628-9650.

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