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Sensors 2015, 15(4), 8499-8511; doi:10.3390/s150408499

Monitoring of Low Levels of Furfural in Power Transformer Oil with a Sensor System Based on a POF-MIP Platform

1
Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, Aversa 81031, Italy
2
Department of Transmission and Distribution Technologies, RSE Research on Energetic System S.p.A, Via Rubattino 54, Milano 20134, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli, Pavia 12-27100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gary R. Pickrell and Daniel Homa
Received: 12 January 2015 / Revised: 27 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Chemical, Biological and Industrial Applications)
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Abstract

In this work an innovative, miniaturized and low cost optical chemical sensor (POF-MIP platform), based on a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) and surface plasmon resonance in a plastic optical fiber (POF), is presented and preliminarily tested for monitoring of furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde) in transformer oil. To this end, the optical platform was coupled to an MIP layer, highly selective for furfural. The ability of the developed sensor to directly detect furfural in the insulating oil was investigated. The detection limit of the sensor has been found to be 9 ppb, with a linear response up to about 30 ppb. However there is a sensible response up to 0.15 ppm. Because of the small linearity range, the Hill equation is suggested for the quantification. The sensor has been effectively tested in real oil samples collected from aged electrical equipment removed from service. The assessed concentration of furfural is in good agreement with that evaluated by a high pressure liquid chromatography (HLPC) method, confirming the good selectivity of the proposed sensor. View Full-Text
Keywords: furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde); power transformer; insulating oil system; molecularly imprinted polymer; plastic optical fiber; surface plasmon resonance; optical sensor furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde); power transformer; insulating oil system; molecularly imprinted polymer; plastic optical fiber; surface plasmon resonance; optical sensor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cennamo, N.; De Maria, L.; D'Agostino, G.; Zeni, L.; Pesavento, M. Monitoring of Low Levels of Furfural in Power Transformer Oil with a Sensor System Based on a POF-MIP Platform. Sensors 2015, 15, 8499-8511.

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