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Sensors 2015, 15(3), 6586-6606; doi:10.3390/s150306586

Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario

1
Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación en Bioingeniería y Tecnología Orientada al Ser Humano, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
Servicio de Neurorrehabilitación y Daño Cerebral de los Hospitales NISA, Fundación Hospitales NISA, 46022 Valencia, Spain
3
Ciber, Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición, CB06/03 Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, Univesity of Jaume I, 12071 Castellón, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panicos Kyriacou
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 5 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4074 KB, uploaded 19 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking) in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm) while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm). However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm), in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm). Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order). Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system. View Full-Text
Keywords: motion tracking; virtual reality; virtual rehabilitation; optical tracking; electromagnetic tracking; Kinect; stroke motion tracking; virtual reality; virtual rehabilitation; optical tracking; electromagnetic tracking; Kinect; stroke
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lloréns, R.; Noé, E.; Naranjo, V.; Borrego, A.; Latorre, J.; Alcañiz, M. Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario. Sensors 2015, 15, 6586-6606.

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