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Sensors 2015, 15(10), 25157-25175; doi:10.3390/s151025157

Hyperbolic Positioning with Antenna Arrays and Multi-Channel Pseudolite for Indoor Localization

1
Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd., 3 Kanda-neribei-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0022, Japan
2
Department of Modern Mechanical Engineering, School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kourosh Khoshelham
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 24 September 2015 / Accepted: 25 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Indoor Mapping and Navigation)
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Abstract

A hyperbolic positioning method with antenna arrays consisting of proximately-located antennas and a multi-channel pseudolite is proposed in order to overcome the problems of indoor positioning with conventional pseudolites (ground-based GPS transmitters). A two-dimensional positioning experiment using actual devices is conducted. The experimental result shows that the positioning accuracy varies centimeter- to meter-level according to the geometric relation between the pseudolite antennas and the receiver. It also shows that the bias error of the carrier-phase difference observables is more serious than their random error. Based on the size of the bias error of carrier-phase difference that is inverse-calculated from the experimental result, three-dimensional positioning performance is evaluated by computer simulation. In addition, in the three-dimensional positioning scenario, an initial value convergence analysis of the non-linear least squares is conducted. Its result shows that initial values that can converge to a right position exist at least under the proposed antenna setup. The simulated values and evaluation methods introduced in this work can be applied to various antenna setups; therefore, by using them, positioning performance can be predicted in advance of installing an actual system. View Full-Text
Keywords: pseudolite; hyperbolic positioning; indoor positioning; GPS pseudolite; hyperbolic positioning; indoor positioning; GPS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fujii, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Wang, W.; Arie, H.; Schmitz, A.; Sugano, S. Hyperbolic Positioning with Antenna Arrays and Multi-Channel Pseudolite for Indoor Localization. Sensors 2015, 15, 25157-25175.

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