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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 1691-1707;

An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area

Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of Environment (IREA), Italian National Research Council (CNR), Via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy
Department of the Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE), Italy
Maritime Engineering Division University of Salerno (MEDUS), Department of Civil Engineering of University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2014)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5419 KB, uploaded 14 January 2015]


Marine X-band radar based systems are well tested to provide information about sea state and bathymetry. It is also well known that complex geometries and non-uniform bathymetries provide a much bigger challenge than offshore scenarios. In order to tackle this issue a retrieval method is proposed, based on spatial partitioning of the data and the application of the Normalized Scalar Product (NSP), which is an innovative procedure for the joint estimation of bathymetry and surface currents. The strategy is then applied to radar data acquired around a harbour entrance, and results show that the reconstructed bathymetry compares well with ground truth data obtained by an echo-sounder campaign, thus proving the reliability of the whole procedure. The spectrum thus retrieved is then analysed to show the evidence of reflected waves from the harbour jetties, as confirmed by chain of hydrodynamic models of the sea wave field. The possibility of using a land based radar to reveal sea wave reflection is entirely new and may open up new operational applications of the system. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine X-band radar; sea state monitoring; radar bathymetry; sea wave field; reflected sea waves marine X-band radar; sea state monitoring; radar bathymetry; sea wave field; reflected sea waves
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ludeno, G.; Reale, F.; Dentale, F.; Carratelli, E.P.; Natale, A.; Soldovieri, F.; Serafino, F. An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area. Sensors 2015, 15, 1691-1707.

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