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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 1148-1167; doi:10.3390/s150101148

Application of PTR-MS for Measuring Odorant Emissions from Soil Application of Manure Slurry

Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Hangøvej 2, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 9 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Sensing Pollution in Air, Water, and Soil)
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Abstract

Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: slurry application; proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry; ozonation; separation; odor emission slurry application; proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry; ozonation; separation; odor emission
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Feilberg, A.; Bildsoe, P.; Nyord, T. Application of PTR-MS for Measuring Odorant Emissions from Soil Application of Manure Slurry. Sensors 2015, 15, 1148-1167.

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