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Sensors 2014, 14(7), 11605-11628; doi:10.3390/s140711605

Who Sits Where? Infrastructure-Free In-Vehicle Cooperative Positioning via Smartphones

Department of Computing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Department of Computer and Information Science, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 19 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 30 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Positioning and Tracking Sensors and Technologies in Road Transport)


Seat-level positioning of a smartphone in a vehicle can provide a fine-grained context for many interesting in-vehicle applications, including driver distraction prevention, driving behavior estimation, in-vehicle services customization, etc. However, most of the existing work on in-vehicle positioning relies on special infrastructures, such as the stereo, cigarette lighter adapter or OBD (on-board diagnostic) adapter. In this work, we propose iLoc, an infrastructure-free, in-vehicle, cooperative positioning system via smartphones. iLoc does not require any extra devices and uses only embedded sensors in smartphones to determine the phones’ seat-level locations in a car. In iLoc, in-vehicle smartphones automatically collect data during certain kinds of events and cooperatively determine the relative left/right and front/back locations. In addition, iLoc is tolerant to noisy data and possible sensor errors. We evaluate the performance of iLoc using experiments conducted in real driving scenarios. Results show that the positioning accuracy can reach 90% in the majority of cases and around 70% even in the worst-cases.
Keywords: in-vehicle positioning; smartphone sensing; opportunistic sensing; signal processing in-vehicle positioning; smartphone sensing; opportunistic sensing; signal processing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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He, Z.; Cao, J.; Liu, X.; Tang, S. Who Sits Where? Infrastructure-Free In-Vehicle Cooperative Positioning via Smartphones. Sensors 2014, 14, 11605-11628.

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