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Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10395-10411; doi:10.3390/s140610395

The Use of Screen-Printed Electrodes in a Proof of Concept Electrochemical Estimation of Homocysteine and Glutathione in the Presence of Cysteine Using Catechol

1
Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ, UK
2
Department of Chemistry, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [668 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Screen printed electrodes were employed in a proof of concept determination of homocysteine and glutathione using electrochemically oxidized catechol via a 1,4-Michael addition reaction in the absence and presence of cysteine, and each other. Using cyclic voltammetry, the Michael reaction introduces a new adduct peak which is analytically useful in detecting thiols. The proposed procedure relies on the different rates of reaction of glutathione and homocysteine with oxidized catechol so that at fast voltage scan rates only homocysteine is detected in cyclic voltammetry. At slower scan rates, both glutathione and homocysteine are detected. The combination of the two sets of data provides quantification for homocysteine and glutathione. The presence of cysteine is shown not to interfere provided sufficient high concentrations of catechol are used. Calibration curves were determined for each homocysteine and glutathione detection; where the sensitivities are 0.019 µA·µM−1 and 0.0019 µA·µM−1 and limit of detections are ca. 1.2 µM and 0.11 µM for homocysteine and glutathione, respectively, within the linear range. This work presents results with potential and beneficial use in re-useable and/or disposable point-of-use sensors for biological and medical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: catechol; carbon nanotube screen printed electrodes; thiols; 1,4-Michael addition reaction; homocysteine; glutathione; cysteine; cyclic voltammetry catechol; carbon nanotube screen printed electrodes; thiols; 1,4-Michael addition reaction; homocysteine; glutathione; cysteine; cyclic voltammetry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lee, P.T.; Lowinsohn, D.; Compton, R.G. The Use of Screen-Printed Electrodes in a Proof of Concept Electrochemical Estimation of Homocysteine and Glutathione in the Presence of Cysteine Using Catechol. Sensors 2014, 14, 10395-10411.

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