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Sensors 2014, 14(5), 8057-8081; doi:10.3390/s140508057
Article

Human Movement Detection and Identification Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

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Received: 26 February 2014; in revised form: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems)
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Abstract: Pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors are widely used as a presence trigger, but the analog output of PIR sensors depends on several other aspects, including the distance of the body from the PIR sensor, the direction and speed of movement, the body shape and gait. In this paper, we present an empirical study of human movement detection and identification using a set of PIR sensors. We have developed a data collection module having two pairs of PIR sensors orthogonally aligned and modified Fresnel lenses. We have placed three PIR-based modules in a hallway for monitoring people; one module on the ceiling; two modules on opposite walls facing each other. We have collected a data set from eight subjects when walking in three different conditions: two directions (back and forth), three distance intervals (close to one wall sensor, in the middle, close to the other wall sensor) and three speed levels (slow, moderate, fast). We have used two types of feature sets: a raw data set and a reduced feature set composed of amplitude and time to peaks; and passage duration extracted from each PIR sensor. We have performed classification analysis with well-known machine learning algorithms, including instance-based learning and support vector machine. Our findings show that with the raw data set captured from a single PIR sensor of each of the three modules, we could achieve more than 92% accuracy in classifying the direction and speed of movement, the distance interval and identifying subjects. We could also achieve more than 94% accuracy in classifying the direction, speed and distance and identifying subjects using the reduced feature set extracted from two pairs of PIR sensors of each of the three modules.
Keywords: pyroelectric infrared sensor; human movement detection; human identification; machine learning; occupancy sensing; occupant localization pyroelectric infrared sensor; human movement detection; human identification; machine learning; occupancy sensing; occupant localization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yun, J.; Lee, S.-S. Human Movement Detection and Identification Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors. Sensors 2014, 14, 8057-8081.

AMA Style

Yun J, Lee S-S. Human Movement Detection and Identification Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors. Sensors. 2014; 14(5):8057-8081.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yun, Jaeseok; Lee, Sang-Shin. 2014. "Human Movement Detection and Identification Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors." Sensors 14, no. 5: 8057-8081.


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