Next Article in Journal
Enhancement of the Wear Particle Monitoring Capability of Oil Debris Sensors Using a Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform with Optimal Decomposition Depth
Previous Article in Journal
A New Approach to Integrate Internet-of-Things and Software-as-a-Service Model for Logistic Systems: A Case Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Oxygen Sensing for Industrial Safety — Evolution and New Approaches
Sensors 2014, 14(4), 6165-6206; doi:10.3390/s140406165

Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA 2 Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli studi di Bari Aldo Moro e Politecnico di Bari, Via Amendola 173, Bari, I-70126, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 21 March 2014 / Published: 28 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2013)


A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis.
Keywords: quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy; quartz tuning fork; gas sensing; mid-IR and THz laser spectroscopy quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy; quartz tuning fork; gas sensing; mid-IR and THz laser spectroscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Patimisco, P.; Scamarcio, G.; Tittel, F.K.; Spagnolo, V. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review. Sensors 2014, 14, 6165-6206.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert